industri kreatif

11Aug08

Sejawat arsitek Ridwan Kamil punya istilah yang menarik sekaligus menantang, “good design is good business”. Produksi film Bollywood setiap tahun jauh diatas produksi Hollywood. Pusat-pusat mode di Milan, Paris dan London, misalnya, menghasilkan jutaan dolar setiap musim. Contoh-contoh ini menyadarkan adanya hubungan yang erat dan hasil yang memuaskan antara hasil kreatifitas dan nilai ekonomi. Ekonomi kreatif, yang kemudian bersama sub-sistem yang lain menjadi jejaring besar bernama industri kreatif.

Sejauh ini bidang-bidang kreatif yang digolongkan kedalam industri kreatif antara lain adalah periklanan, arsitektur, pasar seni dan barang antik, seni kerajinan, design, fashion, film, software interkatif, musik, seni pertunjukan, penerbitan, perangkat lunak dan jasa komputerisasi, televisi dan radio.

Saya mendapatkan artikel berharga yang membahas secara ringkas tentang industri kreatif dan saya letakkan disini. Untuk melengkapinya, saya kutip juga strategi Inggris menjadikan industri kreatif sebagai salah satu visi pembangunan negaranya.

Sekoci Bernama industri Kreatif
Agus Suman, Pengajar Ilmu Ekonomi Universitas Brawijaya, Malang
Kontan, Jumat, 8 Agustus 2008.

Dentang pilunya ekonomi sampai awal semester kedua 2008 ini masih bergema. Bentangan ekonomi kedepan pun oleh para ahli disketsakan dengan warna-warna buram. Tapi, ada arsenal baru yang bisa dijadikan perspektif untuk menyelamatkan ekonomi kedepan.

Ekonomi kreatif bisa dijadikan payung untuk berlindung dari teriknya permasalahan perekonomian. Bahkan, kedepan pun ekspor industri kreatif sebagai sekoci penyelamat peradaban ekonomi adalah sebuah keniscayaan.

Saat inilah momentum yang tepat membicarakan ekonomi kreatif, ketika kondisi perekonomian lokal maupun global sedang dalam keadaan yang memprihatinkan. Berbagai sektor masih mengalami kontraksi yang mengakibatkan tidak stabilnya kondisi perekonomian.

Ekonomi kreatif

Ekonomi dan kreatif bukanlah dua hal yang baru. Yang baru adalah hubungan antara keduanya yang kemudian menghasilkan penciptaan nilai tambah ekonomi yang dahsyat dan menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan yang baru. Kedahsyatannya dilihat dari sisi ekonomi adalah sumbangan ekonomi kreatif terhadap GDP suatu negara.

Yang menarik adalah hal yang memotivasi lahirnya istilah ini. Ternyata bisa ditarik mundur dari ramalan Alvin Toffler bahwa gelombang peradaban manusia itu dibagi tiga gelombang. Gelombang pertama adalah abad pertanian. Gelombang kedua adalah abad industri. Gelombang ketiga adalah abad informasi.

Toffler berhenti disini. Tapi, teori-teori terus berkembang, masuklah manusia pada era peradaban baru, yaitu gelombang ke-4. Ada yang menyebutnya sebagai knowledge-based economy dan ada pula yang menyebutnya sebagai ekonomi berorientasi pada kreativitas.

Alasannya sungguh jelas, di negara maju lahan pertanian telah menyusut jauh, standar hidup yang tinggi menyebabkan biaya operasional pabrik besar di negara-negara maju menjadi semakin mahal. Alhasil, pemanfaatan teknologi informasi, mesin-mesin canggih yang optimal akan sangat membantu mengurangi biaya-biaya manusia.

Dengan mengandalkan kekuatan modal besar, negara maju bisa mendirikan pabrik-pabriknya di negara lain yang tenaga kerjanya lebih murah, dan tentu saja negara maju tidak perlu lagi disesaki dengan asap polusi industri dan limbah industri.

Setelah diteliti, ternyata ekonomi kreatif telah mampu menjadi sumber ekonomi yang tinggi. Pada tahun 2007 donasi industri kreatif terhadap total ekspor adalah Rp. 104,6 triliun atau 10,6%, dan angka ini inipun berarti mencapai 6,3% dari PDB.

Sudah waktunya kita memberi ruang yang nyaman pada industri kreatif ini. Bila selama ini pertumbuhan sektor industri kita dewakan sebagai bahanbakar bagi lajunya pertumbuhan ekonomi, kini industri kreatif menjadi kuda hitam.

Partisipasi industri kreatif dalam menyerap kubangan tenaga kerja juga cukup tinggi: mampu menampung 5,4 juta pekerja, kemudian tingkat partisipasinya juga cukup tinggi, yakni 5,8% dari rata-rata tingkat produktivitas nasional. Tidak berlebihan ditengah kemurungan ekonomi dunia, rasa optimisme kita tumbuh dengan bersandar pada industri kreatif.

Pembangunan industri padat modal sering diadopsi negara-negara berkembang berpenduduk besar seperti India, China, dan Brazil. Mereka berkeyakinan bahwa pertumbuhan industri ini akan menjadi resep terbaik memberantas kemiskinan karena akan menyerap tenaga kerja.

Kenyataannya, industri padat modal acap malah begitu hemat tenaga kerja. Seperti terjadi di India, yang fokus pada pembangunan di bidang teknologi informasi (TI). Diperkirakan tahun 2006 pendapatan dari TI mencapai US$ 36 miliar, suatu jumlah yang fantastis, tapi penyerapan tenaga kerja sektor ini hanya sekitar 200.000 tenaga kerja (BusinessWeek).

Penyelamat ekonomi

Di Indonesia ada 14 sektor industri kreatif yang memiliki peluang besar untuk tumbuh dan berkembang. Antara lain periklanan, arsitektur, pasar seni dan barang antik, kerajinan, desain, fashion, film, musik, serta musik pertunjukan.

Kontribusi industri kreatif kita yang 10,6% dari total ekspor ini cukup tinggi dibandingkan dengan negara lain, seperti singapura yang ekspor industri kreatif terhadap total ekspornya hanya 2,8%, bahkan Inggris untuk hal yang sama, hanya mewarnai 7,9% dari total ekspornya.

Maka bantalan yang empuk sebagai regulasi dari pemerintah untuk perkembangan industri kreatif ini harus diterbitkan. Didalam negeri pun produk kerajinan semakin digemari, terlihat dari penyelenggaraan International Handicraft Fair (Inacraft) dari tahun ke tahun, pesertanya terus membiak dan nilai transaksi penjualannya terus meruah.

Pada 2003 nilai penjualannya hanya sebesar Rp. 11,6 miliar dengan jumlah peserta 600 usaha kecil menengah (UKM). Pada pelaksanaan 2007 penjualannya sudah meroket sebesar Rp. 67,1 miliar dengan peserta semakin kolosal: 1.650 UKM.

Digdayanya peran industri kreatif dalam memajukan ekonomi bisa ditengok pada negara tetangga kita, seperti Korea Selatan (Korsel). Industri kreatif menjadi pelampung penyelamat ekonomi yang terpelanting akibat badai krisis 10 tahun yang lalu.

Saat ini, Korsel bisa bangkit lewat produk industri kreatif pada bidang perfilman, yang pada semester awal 2007, ada 11 film Korsel yang diekspor ke 39 negara, dengan angka penjualan US$ 32,5 juta. Angka yang disebut terakhir ini telah melampaui pendapatan ekspor negara tersebut, yang hampir US$ 31 juta. Nyatalah industri kreatif sebagai lokomotif ekonomi adalah keniscayaan.

Jadi, telah jelas bahwa realitas dan fenomena ekonomi kreatif sebenarnya bukanlah hal yang baru bagi Indonesia yang terbukti memiliki aset kreativitas sejak dulu. Indonesia tidak kekurangan modal kreativitas, hanya kekurangan kemampuan mengintegrasikannya.

Untuk itu langkah-langkah yang dibutuhkan: mengenali apa yang kita miliki (jati diri bangsa dan potensi sumber daya alam dan sumber daya manusia) dan menyusun langkah-langkah konstruktif, agar industri kreatif benar-benar menjadi penyelamat peradaban ekonomi.



4 Responses to “industri kreatif”

  1. 1 e

    The world’s creative hub.

    Britain is a creative country and our creative industries (the creative industries include advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, designer fashion, film, interactive leisure software, music, the performing arts, publishing, software and computer services, television and radio. ) are increasingly vital to the UK. Two million people are employed in creative jobs and the sector contributes £60 billion a year – 7.3 per cent – to the British economy. Over the past decade, the creative sector has grown at twice the rate of the economy as a whole and is well placed for continued growth as demand for creative content – particularly in English – grows.

    This is a strong position. But there are major challenges ahead over the next decade. Global competition is growing as other countries recognise the economic value of creativity. To face this, our creative industries need the best possible business support structures in place and an abundant pool of talented people with the right skills to meet the needs of an expanding creative sector.

    The challenge is as much for government as it is for business, but the action plan we put forward here is a sign of our intent. Now is the time to recognise the growing success story that is Britain’s creative economy and build on that.The creative industries must move from the margins to the mainstream of economic and policy thinking, as we look to create the jobs of the future.The bedrock on which the strategy is built is the Government’s fundamental belief in the role of public funding to stimulate creativity and sharpen Britain’s creative edge.This is reflected in its support for the arts and its commitment to public service broadcasting.These are the threads that connect a country that values excellence in the arts and culture, a population rich in creative talent, and an innovative and flourishing creative economy.

    The vision is of a Britain in ten years’ time where the local economies in our biggest cities are driven by creativity, where there is a much expanded range of creative job opportunities in every region with clear routes into creative careers from local schools and colleges, and where every young person believes they have a real choice to use their talents in a creative capacity. It is a vision of creativity as the engine of economic growth for towns, cities and regions. It’s also a vision of dynamic, innovative, successful creative businesses providing prosperity and fulfilling job opportunities right across the country.

    The journey mapped out in this plan covers the whole creative process from the grassroots to the global marketplace. It starts in schools, with a new commitment to culture in children’s education. It links education and the world of work, and includes a major signal of the Government’s intent by supporting the creative industries to expand significantly apprenticeships to 5,000 a year by 2013 right across the country. It continues into the workplace with actions to support businesses and it looks to the future with the promise of a ground-breaking international event for the world’s leading creative businesses. Together this journey provides a coherent and comprehensive set of measures to make Britain the world’s creative hub.

    Unlocking creative talent.

    Young people benefit from artistic and cultural experiences in many ways. There is the sheer pleasure and enjoyment of seeing, listening and taking part; the building of confidence and presentation skills; the possibility of igniting a life-long passion. For some, the opportunity to experience the highest quality art and culture in schools will be the key that unlocks their creative talents, opening them up to the possibility of a future career in the creative industries. For all those reasons, we will establish the ‘Find Your Talent’ programme – piloting five hours of culture a week for children and young people, building on the national curriculum and the work of Creative Partnerships. Within those five hours – in and outside school – the aim is for every young person in England to have the chance to:
    – attend top quality live performances
    – visit exhibitions, galleries and museums
    – visit heritage sites
    – use library and archive services
    – learn a musical instrument
    – play music or sing
    – take part in theatre and dance performances
    – produce creative writing, or listen to authors
    – learn about and make films, digital or new media art
    – make a piece of visual arts or crafts.

    We will pilot the programme in ten areas with £25 million over three years, with particular emphasis on gifted and talented young people and those with special needs.

    Building on the excellent work of Feargal Sharkey’s Live Music Forum, we are launching a new £0.5 million pilot scheme to provide young musicians in deprived areas with opportunities to practice and perform live, starting with the establishment of at least 10 new rehearsal spaces equipped to professional standards.

    Helping creative talent flourish.

    Having unlocked creativity, the vital next stage is to ensure that young people have real opportunities to develop, and that they can see clearly the directions in which their talent can take them. For too many at the moment, the chance to start a career in the creative industries means moving to London, working for free or knowing someone who can get you a foot in the door. The following measures help untangle the complicated and fragmented paths into a creative career and provide new opportunities for training and work experience.

    By 2013 we expect that the creative industries will provide up to 5,000 formal apprenticeships a year. As a major signal of the Government’s intent, we have challenged creative industries to provide these opportunities across the country and already have commitments from All Out Productions, Bluecoat, BBC at mediacity:uk, Birmingham Repertory Theatre, Centini, Everyman and Playhouse Theatres, FACT, ITV Granada, LOCOG, Monkeydevil Design, Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, Liverpool Biennial, National Museums Liverpool, National Trust, NCSoft, Objective North, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, Royal Opera House, Royal Shakespeare Company, Sage Gateshead, Tate Liverpool, UK Unsigned, Unity Theatre and Universal Music Group.

    The Department for Culture, Media and Sport will work with its Non-Departmental Public Bodies, and through them with its sectors, to agree actions to promote a more diverse workforce.This will involve education, outreach work, spreading good practice and awards that recognise the most diverse firms.

    We will create a talent pathways scheme to support and inspire young people from all backgrounds to pursue careers in the creative sectors. The aim will be for young people to be supported, better informed and guided through each stage of their development from cultural provision in and out of school for children, to better and broader careers advice through initiatives like Creative Choices, and mentoring, talent scouting and national skills camps for young people.

    We will conduct research to ensure that academia is equipping students with the skills they need to make the most effective contribution they can to the creative economy. The research will support a challenge to industry and academia to build ever-stronger links in the interests of bridging gaps in skills provision.

    We will encourage employers and skills providers to set up ground-breaking new innovative places of learning. In addition to the recently announced Skillset Screen and Media Academy network, the Pervasive Media Studio for digital media, and the Eastside Arts Academy, we are working with the industry to develop a National Skills Academy for the creative and cultural industry, a Centre For Excellence for Computer Games, a new Couture Academy, a Finishing School for Animation in Education and a UK Design Skills Alliance to improve professional standards in design education and practice.

    We will explore the impact of a brand new ‘academic hub’ supporting collaboration between schools, further and higher education to provide end-to-end development of creative skills for people aged from 14 through to 25. This is a new way of working for arts universities, such as the University of the Arts London (UAL). It will enable the sharing of curriculum content, industry contacts and facilities with schools, as well as mentoring of students and exchanges for staff, leaders and governors.

    Putting the creative industries at the heart of the economy.

    Alongside the emergence of a richer, deeper pool of creative talent, the support outlined below for research and innovation, business growth, intellectual property rights and the development of creative clusters will help to bring the creative industries in from the margins to the heart of the economy.

    Supporting research and innovation.
    The Technology Strategy Board will provide £10 million to inspire new collaborative research and development ideas for the creative industries. This will encourage business to work together to share knowledge and expertise and to jointly develop new ideas, products, processes and services.

    The National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA) will launch a £3 million Creative Innovators Growth Programme. The programme will help identify what specific support is needed by small and medium-sized creative businesses that seek to exploit new technologies.

    The Technology Strategy Board will launch a Knowledge Transfer Network for the creative industries. This will help creative businesses access expert knowledge and information by bringing them together with technical experts, suppliers, customers, universities, research and technology organisations and others.

    The Department for Innovation, Universities & Skills will commission research to better quantify the economic benefits of the creative industries with special attention to the value added by innovation in those industries. This is likely to be of particular relevance to businesses that rely on copyright rather than patent.

    Helping creative businesses to grow.
    Arts Council England will help deliver the objectives of the Creative Economy Programme with support targeted at projects that combine artistic excellence with commercial potential. Working with Regional Development Agencies (RDAs), Arts Council England will provide venture capital to small creative enterprises. Arts Council England will also expand the management courses in its Cultural Leadership Programme to help small businesses develop business and training plans.

    The RDAs will establish a network of regional beacons for the creative industries. The approach will be piloted in the South West, South East, North West, North East and West Midlands regions, and will look at ways in which the business support framework can best deliver benefits for the creative industries.

    We will encourage bids for Enterprise Capital Funds (ECFs) from the creative industries and help generate increased investment flows to the sector. We will also welcome economic analysis from the creative industries to demonstrate the existence of particular challenges experienced by them in securing equity finance.

    Fostering and protecting intellectual property.
    We will consult on legislation that would require internet service providers and rights holders to co-operate in taking action on illegal file sharing – with a view to implementing legislation by April 2009. Finding voluntary, preferably commercial solutions, remains the ideal, but the Government will equip itself to introduce legislation swiftly if suitable arrangements between ISPs and relevant sectors are not forthcoming or prove insufficient.We will also explore tougher penalties for copyright infringement. These actions signal the Government’s strong support for the creative industries as we move towards a fully digital world.

    The UK-Intellectual Property Office (UK-IPO) will put into action a plan on intellectual property (IP) enforcement. The aim is to use the current enforcement regime more effectively through innovations such as a National Centre of Excellence to offer expert police resources to local enforcement. We will promote better understanding of the value and importance of intellectual property. This will be delivered through the curriculum in schools and public awareness campaigns.

    Supporting creative clusters.
    The RDAs will pilot creative economy strategic frameworks in two regions – the RDAs will take forward the aspects of the creative economy strategy which apply in the regions, working with creative and cultural agencies and businesses to align plans and resources, find and exploit efficiencies, and invest strategically in priority projects.

    The Government is launching a review to identify the barriers to investment in next generation broadband. In addition to growing consumer expectations, innovative new services like online video games, video and music distribution and user-generated content are set to expand. We need to make sure that where possible we take action to remove constraints on future development of the market.

    Through the Local Government Association, and with the RDAs, we will develop a ‘menu for local infrastructure’. This will be a tool to help local and regional authorities decide which developments – like flexible office and rehearsal space, or protection of existing venues and marketing – they might pursue to attract the creative industries to their areas, kick-starting their own creative hubs.

    The UK Film Council, in association with Arts Council England and the Arts and Humanities Research Council will help develop ‘mixed media centres’. Popular cultural venues such as Manchester’s Cornerhouse, Tyneside Cinema and Bristol’s Watershed have the potential to act as hubs of creativity for businesses in their respective cities.

    In line with the recommendations of the Live Music Forum, we will encourage the protection of live music venues, building on the example set by the work of the Mayor of London. Our vibrant, diverse and thriving musical heritage depends on the availability of venues of a wide range of sizes and sophistication and our intention is to ensure their future is protected.

    The world’s creative hub.

    The UK’s location between the US and Asia – and the current vibrancy of Britain’s creative economy – places us in a unique position to become the world’s creative hub, developing and sustaining relationships through cultural exchange. This also promotes the flow of creative talent to and from this country necessary to continually refresh and invigorate our creative economy.

    UK Trade & Investment will lead a five-year strategy to enhance the international competitive position of the UK’s creative industries. The strategy will promote our reputation as an innovative, dynamic springboard to global growth.

    We will initiate the launch of the World Creative Business Conference. This will be an annual event for world leaders in the creative industries and financial sectors. Aspiring ultimately to the global significance of the Davos Economic Forum, we will aim to hold the first event in spring 2009.

    We will work with the Mayor of London and other partners to champion London’s many creative festivals and forge better, mutually beneficial links with important festivals around the country such as Animex, the International Festival of Animation and Computer Games in Middlesbrough and the Birmingham International Film Festival.

    Keeping the strategy up-to-date.

    This document is valuable as a statement of intent – but the commitments it makes can only be a high-level summary of the many actions currently underway or imminent.To make sure that we are flexible and adaptable to the rapid changes in the creative sector we will establish a new board led by Ministers to implement this programme and respond to changing technology and new demands. We will also continue to gather new evidence and fund new research.

    Finally, an interactive website will be launched where stakeholders can signal new pressures and challenges, hold debates and discussions, and access the latest version of the strategy.

  2. 2 e

    Summary of Commitments

    Giving all children a creative education.
    1.
    We will establish the ‘Find Your Talent’ programme – piloting five hours of culture a week for children and young people

    Turning talent into jobs.
    2.
    We will create a talent pathways scheme to support and inspire young people from all backgrounds to pursue careers in the creative sectors
    3.
    The DCMS will work with its NDPBs, and through them its sectors, to agree actions to promote a more diverse workforce
    4.
    We will conduct research to ensure that academia is equipping students with the skills they need to make the most effective contribution they can to the creative economy
    5.
    We will encourage employers and skills providers to set up ground-breaking new innovative places of learning
    6.
    We will explore the impact of a brand new ‘Academic Hub’ supporting collaboration between schools, further and higher education to provide end-to-end development of creative skills for people aged from 14 through to 25
    7.
    Apprenticeships will be established across the creative industries for up to 5,000 people a year by 2013

    Supporting research and innovation.
    8.
    The Technology Strategy Board will provide £10 million to inspire new collaborative research and development ideas for the creative industries
    9.
    NESTA will launch a £3 million Creative Innovators Growth Programme
    10.
    The Technology Strategy Board will launch a Knowledge Transfer Network for the creative industries
    11.
    The Department for Innovation, Universities & Skills will commission research to better quantify the economic benefits of the creative industries, with special attention to the value added by innovation in those industries

    Helping creative businesses grow and access finance.
    12.
    Arts Council England will help deliver the objectives of the Creative Economy Programme
    13.
    The Regional Development Agencies will establish a network of regional beacons for the creative industries in the South West, South East, North West, North East and West Midlands
    14.
    We will encourage bids for Enterprise Capital Funds from the creative industries and expect to see increased investment flows as a result Fostering and protecting intellectual property
    15.
    We will consult on legislation that would require internet service providers and rights holders to co-operate in taking action on illegal file sharing – with a view to implementing legislation by April 200
    16.
    UK-IPO will put into action a plan on IP enforcement
    17.
    We will promote better understanding of the value and importance of intellectual property

    Supporting creative clusters.
    18.
    The Regional Development Agencies will pilot regional creative economy strategic frameworks in two regions, the North West and South West
    19.
    The Government will review what the barriers to investment in next generation broadband may be
    20.
    Through the Local Government Association, and with the RDAs, we will develop a ‘menu for local infrastructure’
    21.
    The UK Film Council, in association with Arts Council England and the Arts and Humanities Research Council, will help develop ‘mixed media centres’
    22.
    In line with the recommendations of the Live Music Forum, we will encourage the protection of live music venues, building on the example set by the work of the Mayor of London

    Promoting Britain as the world’s creative hub.
    23.
    UK Trade and Investment will lead a five-year strategy to enhance the international competitive position of the UK’s creative industries
    24.
    We will initiate the launch of the World Creative Business Conference.
    25.
    We will work with the Mayor of London and other partners to champion London’s many creative festivals – and forge better, mutually beneficial links with important festivals around the country

    Keeping the Strategy up-to-date.
    26.
    We will put in place the right structures to ensure that the Creative Economy Programme keeps pace with developments on the ground

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  4. 4 e

    Jalan Panjang Pengembangan Industri Kreatif
    sumber: harian kompas – rabu, 24 des 2008

    Ketika berbagai sektor jasa dan industri goyang dihantam badai krisis keuangan global, sektor industri kreatif diharapkan mampu bertahan. Pemerintah mulai melirik industri kreatif sebagai alternatif roda penggerak ekonomi yang akan terus berputar.

    Industri kreatif terdiri dari ekonomi kreatif meliputi 14 subsektor, yaitu periklanan; arsitektur; pasar barang seni; kerajinan; desain; busana; video, film, dan fotografi; permainan interaktif; musik; seni pertunjukan; penerbitan dan percetakan; layanan komputer dan peranti lunak; televisi dan radio; serta riset dan pengembangannya.

    Berdasarkan data Departemen Perdagangan, subsektor yang memberikan kontribusi terbesar terhadap produk domestik bruto (PDB) adalah busana 44 persen, disusul subsektor kerajinan 28 persen, subsektor periklanan dan desain masing-masing 7 persen, subsektor arsitektur 3,2 persen, percetakan dan penerbitan 3,5 persen, musik 3 persen, radio dan televisi 2 persen, riset dan pengembangan 1 persen, dan layanan komputer serta peranti lunak 1 persen.

    Subsektor yang menyumbangkan PDB kurang dari 1 persen adalah pasar barang seni 0,6 persen; permainan interaktif 0,3 persen; film, video, dan fotografi 0,3 persen; dan seni pertunjukan 0,1 persen.

    Melihat angka-angka di atas, Departemen Perdagangan menyusun rencana jangka panjang pengembangan industri kreatif. Target yang harus dicapai adalah meningkatkan kontribusi industri kreatif terhadap PDB. Pada tahun 2009-2015, PDB dari sektor industri kreatif ditargetkan meningkat sebesar 7-8 persen. Sebelumnya, tahun 2002-2006, kontribusi industri kreatif terhadap PDB berkisar 6,2 persen atau senilai Rp 104,7 triliun.

    Menteri Perdagangan Mari Elka Pangestu dalam konferensi The 2nd World International Property Organization (WIPO) International Conference on Intellectual Property and The Creative Industries di Nusa Dua mengatakan, PDB Indonesia dari industri kreatif lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan negara maju seperti Inggris sebesar 7,9 persen dengan pertumbuhan per tahun 9 persen. Namun, kontribusi industri kreatif Indonesia terhadap PDB masih lebih besar dibandingkan dengan Selandia Baru sebesar 3,1 persen, dan Australia sebesar 3,3 persen.

    Mari menambahkan, selama tahun 2002-2006 rata-rata industri kreatif di Indonesia mampu menyerap tenaga kerja 5,8 persen atau 5,4 juta pekerja. Nilai ekspor dari industri kreatif mencapai Rp 69,8 triliun atau 10,6 persen dari ekspor nasional.

    Tahap penguatan

    Menurut Mari, pada tahun 2009-2015, yang disebut tahap penguatan dasar dan fondasi, peningkatan kontribusi PDB dari industri kreatif ditargetkan sebesar 7-8 persen. Sementara peningkatan kontribusi ekspor menjadi 11-12 persen dan penyerapan tenaga kerja 6-7 persen.

    Program selanjutnya adalah tahap pengembangan industri kreatif tahun 2015-2025, yaitu tahap akselerasi. Pada kurun waktu tersebut diharapkan kontribusi industri kreatif terhadap PDB mencapai 9-11 persen. Kontribusi ekspor meningkat menjadi 12-13 persen dan penyerapan tenaga kerja meningkat menjadi 9-11 persen.

    Secara garis besar, Departemen Perdagangan menargetkan pengembangan industri kreatif secara signifikan pada tahun 2009-2025. Jumlah hak paten dalam negeri ditargetkan meningkat sebesar 4 persen, adapun pendaftaran hak kekayaan intelektual dalam negeri meningkat menjadi 39 persen. Pendaftaran merek dagang dalam negeri juga meningkat menjadi 6 persen dan hak desain industri dalam negeri yang terdaftar meningkat menjadi 40 persen.

    Pengembangan kantong-kantong industri kreatif yang selama ini masih terbatas di Jakarta, Jawa Barat, DI Yogyakarta, Jawa Tengah, serta Bali akan diperluas. Sebelum tahun 2015, jumlah kantong industri kreatif meningkat dua kali lipat. Dari sejumlah kantong industri kreatif itu, akan muncul 200 merek lokal yang menembus pasar dalam negeri ataupun luar negeri.

    Pada tahun 2016-2025, jumlah kantong industri kreatif akan menjadi dua kali lipat dari jumlah yang ada sampai tahun 2015. Jumlah merek lokal yang mampu menembus pasar dalam negeri dan luar negeri sebanyak 504 merek.

    Departemen Perdagangan mendukung pengembangan 14 subsektor industri kreatif, tetapi hanya enam subsektor unggulan untuk ekspor dan penguatan merek, yaitu arsitektur; video, film, dan fotografi khususnya animasi; busana; musik; kerajinan; dan desain. Pertimbangannya karena keenam subsektor itu memberikan kontribusi terbesar terhadap perekonomian.

    Ridwan Kamil, Ketua Bandung Creative City Forum, mengatakan, selama ini industri kreatif berjalan sendiri dalam berkreasi sampai ke tahap promosi dan pemasaran. Para pelaku industri kreatif sangat mandiri.

    Menurut Ridwan, peran pemerintah dalam mendorong dan melindungi industri kreatif sedikit terlambat. Selama ini para pelaku industri kreatif dengan sifat kemandirian yang kuat dapat menyelesaikan sendiri segala urusannya. Meskipun demikian, Ridwan menyambut baik upaya pemerintah yang menganggap industri kreatif sebagai industri yang serius.

    Industri kreatif terbukti mampu bertahan hidup dalam kondisi perekonomian yang sulit. Ridwan mengatakan, “Di Bandung, pada saat krisis ekonomi tahun 1998, hanya ada belasan distro. Sekarang jumlah distro di Bandung mencapai 400-an, coba hitung berapa miliar uang yang berputar dari distro saja.”

    Menurut Ridwan, untuk mengembangkan kantong-kantong industri kreatif di kota-kota, diperlukan kebijakan pemerintah daerah yang mendukung, misalnya menyediakan ruang publik untuk berekspresi, menciptakan budaya masyarakat yang terbuka, dan selalu menjalin komunikasi dengan pelaku industri kreatif.

    Industri kreatif akan menjadi industri yang menguntungkan di masa depan seiring dengan perubahan selera pasar. Populasi Indonesia yang berusia 15-29 tahun sebanyak 40,2 juta atau 18,4 persen merupakan pasar yang sangat gemuk bagi industri kreatif.

    Dibutuhkan waktu yang tidak singkat untuk mengembangkan dan memperkuat industri kreatif di Indonesia. Dalam upaya tersebut, diperlukan komunikasi dan koordinasi yang erat antara pelaku industri kreatif dan pemerintah. (WAD)


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